Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Title:


SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names: Jeremy Matthew Delizo Dela Serna; Tan Kah Hui, Emily; Laylo Kholmirzaeva; Ashwin Suresh

Class: S2-06

Group Reference: B


1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:


[ ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research

e.g. Investigation of the antibacterial effect of chrysanthemum


[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
e.g. Determination of the mass of Jupiter using planetary photography

[    X    ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
Investigation of the effect of UV Light/Microwaves on the growth of plants/nutrients in food

[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
e.g. Modeling of the cooling curve of naphthalene

[ ] Observational and exploratory research
e.g. Investigation of the soil quality in School of Science and Technology, Singapore  

[ ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  

An investigation of the effect of the UV Light on the growth of lemongrass.

4 students wanted to test the effects of UV Light on the growth of plants to see how much damage it can do to them if they stay too long in the sun.


The independent variable is the amount of time plants are exposed to the UV Light.

The dependent variable is the height of the plants after being exposed to the UV Light.

The constants are:

(a)  The type of plant used

(b)  The number of plants used per set-up

(c)  The intensity of UV light used

(d)  The amount of cotton wool used to grow the plant


Hypothesis 

The hypothesis is the longer the plant is exposed to UV light, the shorter the height of the plant will be.

Equipment list:
  • Lemongrass seeds ( 18 seeds )
  • Light lamps (2-4)
  • UVB light lamps ( 1-2 )
  • Boxes/ Containers (18)
  • A bag of soil (100cm^3)
  • Water (800ml)



Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection

  1. First prepare 8 identical containers ( In this case, we used plastic party cups.)
  2. Fill each container with soil and add 50ml of water to each container to make the soil moist.
  3. Place 3 seeds into each container.
  4. Attach artificial lighting (White LEDs) on the roof of Cardboard box.
  5. Attach a UV light source next to the artificial light
  6. Change the dependent variable: Presence of UV light.
  7. Do 8 set-ups (6 groups of 3 set-ups and 2 control experiments.)
  • Three seeds (1 set-up) grown in artificial light and UV light for 30 minutes before turning UV light off and letting them grow for 42 hours under artificial light.
  • Three seeds (1 set-up) grown in artificial light and UV light for 60 minutes before turning UV light off and letting them grow for 42 hours under artificial light.
  • Three seeds (1 set-up) grown in artificial light and UV light for 90 minutes before turning UV light off and letting them grow for 42 hours under artificial light.
  • Three seeds (1 set-up) grown in artificial light and UV light for 120 minutes before turning UV light off and letting them grow for 42 hours under artificial light
  • Three seeds (1 set-up) grown in artificial light and UV light for 150 minutes before turning UV light off and letting them grow for 42 hours under artificial light.
  • Three seeds (1 set-up) grown in artificial light and UV light for 180 minutes before turning UV light off and letting them grow for 42 hours under artificial light.
10. Then measure the height of the plants in the containers and record it down.
11. Compare height with controls.
12.Take the average height of the plants in each group of three seeds (1 set-up).
13. Then check if Hypotheses if it is correct.
14. Draw Conclusion


• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.
  • Take caution when attaching the different equipment such as the diodes and water droppers so that they do not fall into the experiment.
  • We might get over-exposure to UV Light. Minimise exposure to UV Light as much as possible by covering it the set-ups with boxes.
  • The plants may be contaminated. We should use gloves to handle the plants after exposure to UV Light.

Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses
  1. Measure the average height of the plants per time exposed to UV light by measuring the height of each of the plants in one group of set-ups and drawing an average
  2. Draw a graph with the time exposed to plants the x-scale and the average height of the plants the y-scale.


Research:

UV Rays and Its Uses

UV radiation is part of the electromagnetic (light) spectrum that reaches the earth from the sun. It has wavelengths shorter than visible light, making it invisible to the naked eye. These wavelengths are classified as UVA, UVB, or UVC, with UVA the longest of the three at 320-400 nanometers (nm, or billionths of a meter). UVA is further divided into two wave ranges, UVA I, which measures 340-400 nanometers (nm, or billionths of a meter), and UVA II which extends from 320-340 nanometers. UVB ranges from 290 to 320 nm. With even shorter rays, most UVC is absorbed by the ozone layer and does not reach the earth.
Uses for UV light include getting a suntan, detecting forged bank notes in shops, and hardening some types of dental filling.You also see UV lamps in clubs, where they make your clothes glow. This happens because substances in washing powder "fluoresce" when UV light strikes them - they absorb the UV and then re-radiate the energy at a longer wavelength. Your teeth do the same thing!The lamps are sometimes called "black lights" because we can't see the UV coming from them.When you mark your possessions with a security marker pen, the ink is invisible unless you shine a UV lamp at it.Ultraviolet rays can be used to kill microbes. Hospitals use UV lamps to sterilise surgical equipment and the air in operating theatres.Food and drug companies also use UV lamps to sterilise their products.Suitable doses of Ultraviolet rays cause the body to produce vitamin D, and this is used by doctors to treat vitamin D deficiency and some skin disorders.


Skin Cancer Caused By UV Rays
Both UVA and UVB, however, penetrate the atmosphere and play an important role in conditions such as premature skin aging, eye damage (including cataracts), and skin cancers. They also suppress the immune system, reducing your ability to fight off these and other maladies.By damaging the skin's cellular DNA, excessive UV radiation produces genetic mutations that can lead to skin cancer. Both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health Organization have identified UV as a proven human carcinogen. UV radiation is considered the main cause of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). These cancers strike more than a million and more than 250,000 Americans, respectively, each year. Many experts believe that, especially for fair-skinned people, UV radiation also frequently plays a key role in melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, which kills more than 8,000 Americans each year.
Most of us are exposed to large amounts of UVA throughout our lifetime. UVA rays account for up to 95 percent of the UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Although they are less intense than UVB, UVA rays are 30 to 50 times more prevalent. They are present with relatively equal intensity during all daylight hours throughout the year, and can penetrate clouds and glass.
UVA, which penetrates the skin more deeply than UVB, has long been known to play a major part in skin aging and wrinkling (photoaging), but until recently scientists believed it did not cause significant damage in areas of the epidermis (outermost skin layer) where most skin cancers occur. Studies over the past two decades, however, show that UVA damages skin cells called keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, where most skin cancers occur. (Basal and squamous cells are types of keratinocytes.) UVA contributes to and may even initiate the development of skin cancers.
UVA is the dominant tanning ray, and we now know that tanning, whether outdoors or in a salon, causes cumulative damage over time. A tan results from injury to the skin's DNA; the skin darkens in an imperfect attempt to prevent further DNA damage. These imperfections, or mutations, can lead to skin cancer.
Tanning booths primarily emit UVA. The high-pressure sunlamps used in tanning salons emit doses of UVA as much as 12 times that of the sun. Not surprisingly, people who use tanning salons are 2.5 times more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.5 times more likely to develop basal cell carcinoma. According to recent research, first exposure to tanning beds in youth increases melanoma risk by 75 percent.

UVB, the chief cause of skin reddening and sunburn, tends to damage the skin's more superficial epidermal layers. It plays a key role in the development of skin cancer and a contributory role in tanning and photoaging. Its intensity varies by season, location, and time of day. The most significant amount of UVB hits the U.S. between 10 AM and 4 PM from April to October. However, UVB rays can burn and damage your skin year-round, especially at high altitudes and on reflective surfaces such as snow or ice, which bounce back up to 80 percent of the rays so that they hit the skin twice. UVB rays do not significantly penetrate glass.

Skin Cancer Statistics
Common Cancer
In young American women between the ages of 20 and 35, and in adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15 and 29, melanoma is the second most common cancer.

Melanoma is the leading cause of cancer death in women ages 25 to 30 and is second only to breast cancer in women ages 30 to 34.

In the U.S., melanoma is currently the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh most common in women of all age groups.


America's Highest Risk Population
Caucasian-Americans are 23 times more likely to develop melanoma than African-Americans. Worldwide, White populations have the highest risk of developing melanoma, and Asian populations have the lowest risk.


World's Highest Risk Countries
The world's highest incidence of melanoma is in Australia and New Zealand (more than twice as high as in North America). This may be due to how close these countries are to the equator, their greatly reduced ozone layer, and their population of mostly fair-skinned people.

Because of Australia's extensive skin cancer screening program, there has been a decrease in average tumor depth at the time of diagnosis.



How to grow garden cress. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://herbgardening.com/growinggardencress.htm

Marchildon, Z. (2013, January 17). Uv light effect on plants. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/o1ikajlcruln/uv-light-effect-on-plants/

Polyakov, D. L. (Director) (2009, April 2). The Effect of Ultraviolet Light on Plant Development and Fruit Production. CALIFORNIA STATE SCIENCE FAIR 2009 PROJECT SUMMARY. Lecture conducted from University of California Irvine Lab., California.


Munroe, S. (n.d.). What a cress seed needs to grow. Retrieved from http://homeguides.sfgate.com/cress-seed-needs-grow-82612.html

Stapleton, A. (1992). Ultraviolet Radiation and Plants: Burning Questions. The Plant Cell, 4, 1353-1358,.

Skin Cancer Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2015, from http://www.skincancer.org/prevention/uva-and-uvb/understanding-uva-and-uvb
Ultraviolet. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2015, from

uv A or B or C quote the website
Find Uv B light (available in pet shop) search in website call the website where there is uv b light grow 2 cress


Zeman, G. (2014, August 13). Ultraviolet radiation. Retrieved from http://hps.org/hpspublications/articles/uv.html

No comments:

Post a Comment